Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Research Proposal

Sec 2 Interdisciplinary Research Studies

Research Topic: Energy Generation 00_Chosen Area of Focus: The Cost of Energy Generation Group Member’s Names- -Koh Jin Wei (18) -Yash Dixit (12) 01_Statement of Problem (framing our research data of >200 words)
Energy. One of the 15 first world problems faced by human.(Millennium, 2009) Humans have largely depend on the burning of Fossil Fuels to generate electricity. But now not only has the supply of Fossil Fuels decrease in an alarming rate, also the way of burning Fossil Fuels have polluted our environment very much so. The generation of electricity is one of the major problems human face, due to its cost. The cost of energy is nothing short of costly, whether is it monetary or other means. From my above statement; the “other means” refer to various cost, like: the impact on the environment, health risk done to humans, animals and other living organisms. Examples for them would be like how the pollution from the burning of fossil fuels would affect the environment and damage our respiratory system; or how waste from Nuclear Power Plants are very radioactive which would cause cancer for humans or worst, Death. Next, on to monetary, the build, maintenance, start-up, manpower costs are very expensive. There’s also another cost thats very important, Land. We're facing a shortage of free land space to built these kinds of power generator. Wind turbines need a lot of space to be built due to the need of distance between each turbine. And the factors that energy generators work under must be also taken into consideration, wind turbines need areas with large wind velocity.Thus the cost of electricity is a cost that we are having troubles with. 02_Research Objectives (>200 words)
Our research objective on this energy crisis is to find out about the cost of different energy. How the different energy sources affect the cost needed to run it and which source would be the best for various locations. We would like to gather the cost as in the built cost, manpower, start-up cost, land .etc. In other words the LCOE. (levelised cost of energy) Also we would research via the web on how does different energy sources impact the environment differently. And how different energy sources affect the human/organism health via its emission, waste, radiation .etc. This factors would be collated into a google spreadsheet, and we would find out which would be the best or the worst energy source.So the objective of this research to understand the relationship between the cost and the energy produced from different energy sources. From this, we could educate others on conserving energy and teach them on how using it would affect the environment, economy, .etc. The information of its advantages and disadvantages may help others if they consider getting a energy generator. The information could also be used in Singapore when we consider what kind of energy sources to use in our environment. 03_Literature Review (Brief summary of at least 3 sources that you have consulted with reference to your research topic) 200 words
-According to Wikipedia(2014),While calculating costs, several internal cost factors have to be considered.(the actual selling price can be affected by a variety of factors such as subsidies and taxes). This is called the Levelised Cost of Energy; LCOE. -According to nottenergy. (2014, Janu, n.d) Different energy sources are measured in different units: litres, therms, BTU, kWh, units, cubic metres and many more. This makes it very difficult to compare the actual costs for producing energy from different energy sources. For this reason, standardised units and costs are needed. (We would be using a mixture of kWh & MWh) -According to Nuclear Association, W. (2014, Febu 02), Fuel costs for nuclear plants are a minor proportion of total generating costs, though capital costs are greater than those for coal-fired plants and much greater than those for gas-fired plants. -According to energy4me (2006-2014),the epic challenge of the 21st century is filling the gap between energy supply and demand with clean, reliable and inexpensive energy. -According to (Nandan Kumar Mondal, 2007), biomass smoke contains a wide spectrum of potentially toxic compounds, its effect on public health is relatively unexplored. -According to (Rozenblat.L 2014), Fossil-based fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas) currently provide about 85% of all the energy use both in US and worldwide. 04_Proposed Hypotheses (50 words)
Based on the our background knowledge, we suspect that the nuclear energy is the worst (most expensive, most harmful to the environment and the most dangerous) energy source; due to the fact that it is often reported in the news how harmful and dangerous nuclear energy is when one of the places which use nuclear energy as an energy source malfunctions or gets affected by natural disasters etc. We also think that solar energy is the best (most eco-friendly and the least harmful to humans) energy source; due to it being a renewable energy source.

05_Research Plan(Describe how you intend to design your research i.e. who/what you are going to research on, how many respondents, your study area/location etc) 200 words
We will be searching on the internet for information on the different costs on different energy sources and their environmental impact, so as to find out which are the best and the worst energy sources. We would be visiting some government websites, some research institutes websites and some organisation websites so as to find out the different costs on different energy sources and their environmental impact from the research they have already conducted and the information they already have. We will also be finding out which the best and the worst energy sources according to them are. We will be finding out the effects that the different energy sources have on humans. We will find out the geological costs, start-up costs, maintenance costs, environmental costs and total monetary costs. 06_Analysis of Data
The non-numerical data would be classified under a table while the monetary data would be done in a graph. 07_Overall assessment on feasibility and manageability of the research (justify why your research can be managed and results be achieved within the time-frame) 50 words The research on the net would be quite easily done. We could just use a few hours to ‘fish’ out the relevant data we need. Classification of data would be a tad more troublesome, but still manageable in a few hours or an hour if we work fast. Thus, the feasibility of this research isn't really extensive and easily managed. 08_References 1. Nottingham, E. P. (2013, Janu 01). Energy cost comparison. Retrieved from http://www.nottenergy.com/energy_cost_comparison (Nottingham, 2013) 2. Rozenblat, L. (2010, Janu 01). Your guide to renewable energy. Retrieved from http://www.renewable-energysources.com/ (Rozenblat, 2010) 3. Pare, J. (2007, Febu 23). Energy source cost comparison. Retrieved from http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/coastal/ocean_policy/documents/te_workshop_cost_compare.pdf (Pare, 2007) 4. PB, P. (2004, Febu 13). The cost of generating electricity. Retrieved from https://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Cost_Generation_Commentary.pdf (PB, 2004) 5. Engineers, P. (2006, Janu 01). Energy source comparison. Retrieved from http://www.energy4me.org/energy-facts (Engineers, 2006) 6. theguardian. (2014, Febu 13). Renewable energy. Retrieved fromhttp://www.theguardian.com/environment/renewableenergy (theguardian, 2014) 7. Nuclear Association, W. (2014, Febu 02). The economics of nuclear power. Retrieved from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Economic-Aspects/Economics-of-Nuclear-Power/ (Nuclear Association, 2014) 8. Rettner, R., & Science, L. (2011, marc 15). How does nuclear radiation harm the body?. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/13250-radiation-health-effects-japan-nuclear-reactor-cancer.html (Rettner & Science, 2011) 9. Association, G. E. (2014, Febu 04). What are the environmental benefits and issues related to geothermal energy?. Retrieved from http://www.geo-energy.org/geo_basics_environment.aspx (Association, 2014) 10. EPA, U. (2013, Sept 13). Coal. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/coal.html (EPA, 2013) 11. Behling, B. (2004, Janu 01). Geo testimony to ohio biofuel & renewable energy task force. Retrieved from https://www.greenenergyohio.org/page.cfm?pageId=49 (Behling, 2004) 12. Australian, G. (2005, Janu 01). Smoke from biomass burning. Retrieved from http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/smoke-biomass-burning (Australian, 2005) 13. Nandan Kumar Mondal, D. (2007, Janu 01). Health effects of chronic exposure to smoke from biomass fuel burning in rural areas. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1071891/Health_effects_of_chronic_exposure_to_smoke_from_Biomass_Fuel_burning_in_rural_areas (Nandan Kumar Mondal, 2007) 14. Wellspring, E. (2014, Febu 01). Solar energy can be a health hazard. Retrieved from http://www.eiwellspring.org/SolarEMFHazard.pdf (Wellspring, 2014) 15. Salt, A. N.(P.H.D) (2013, June 06). Wind turbines can be hazardous to human health. Retrieved from http://oto2.wustl.edu/cochlea/wind.html (Salt, 2013) 16. Millennium, P. (2009, Janu 01). Global challenges for humanity. Retrieved from http://www.millennium-project.org/millennium/challeng.html (Millennium, 2009) 17. Good, C. (2014, March 15). Health and safety concerns of photovoltaic solar panels . Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/OIPP/docs/life-cyclehealthandsafetyconcerns.pdf (Good C, 2014) 18.Good, C. (2014, March 15). Scaling public concerns of electromagnetic fields produced by solar photovoltaic arrays. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/hwy/oipp/docs/emfconcerns.pdf (Good C, 2014)

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