Saturday, April 12, 2014

Information about Wind Energy

Information about Wind Energy

Definition- Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.

As a general rule, economic wind generators require windspeed of 16 km/h (10 mph) or greater. An ideal location would have a near constant flow of non-turbulent wind throughout the year, with a minimum likelihood of sudden powerful bursts of wind. An important factor of turbine siting is also access to local demand or transmission capacity.

Wind Farms
A wind farm or wind park is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce energy. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm can also be located offshore.


Yash Dixit Signing Out

Information about Hydro-power

Information about Hydro-power

Definition- Hydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

Having fallen out of favor during the late 20th century due to the disruptive ecological and social effects of large impoundments, hydropower enjoyed a revival by 2013 as international institutions such as the World Bank tried to find solutions to economic development which avoided adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere.

Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water to the turbine.

Yash Dixit Signing Out

Information about Solar Energy

Information about Solar Energy

Definition- Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.


The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.


Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind,cyclones and anti-cyclones.Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.

Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption
Solar3,850,000 EJ
Wind2,250 EJ
Biomass potential100–300 EJ
Primary energy use (2010)539 EJ
Electricity (2010)66.5 EJ
The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass. The technical potential available from biomass is from 100–300 EJ/year. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined,


Solar energy can be harnessed at different levels around the world, mostly depending on distance from the equator.

Solar Farms

They are differentiated from most building-mounted and other decentralised solar power applications because they supply power at the utility level, rather than to a local user or users. They are sometimes also referred to as solar farms or solar ranches, especially when sited in agricultural areas. The generic expression utility-scale solar is sometimes used to describe this type of project.

The power conversion source is via photovoltaic modules that convert light directly to electricity. This differs from the other large-scale solar generation technology, concentrated solar power.

Yash Dixit Signing Out

Friday, April 11, 2014

Bibliography(Finalised)

Our Previous Sites were not cited properly. And there was a lot of wikipedia links.

1.
Nottingham, E. P. (2013, Janu 01). Energy cost comparison. Retrieved from http://www.nottenergy.com/energy_cost_comparison
(Nottingham, 2013)

2.
Rozenblat, L. (2010, Janu 01). Your guide to renewable energy. Retrieved from http://www.renewable-energysources.com/
(Rozenblat, 2010)

3.
Pare, J. (2007, Febu 23). Energy source cost comparison. Retrieved from http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/coastal/ocean_policy/documents/te_workshop_cost_compare.pdf
(Pare, 2007)

4.
PB, P. (2004, Febu 13). The cost of generating electricity. Retrieved from https://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Cost_Generation_Commentary.pdf
(PB, 2004)

5.
Engineers, P. (2006, Janu 01). Energy source comparison. Retrieved from http://www.energy4me.org/energy-facts
(Engineers, 2006)

6.
theguardian. (2014, Febu 13). Renewable energy. Retrieved fromhttp://www.theguardian.com/environment/renewableenergy
(theguardian, 2014)

7.
Nuclear Association, W. (2014, Febu 02). The economics of nuclear power. Retrieved from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Economic-Aspects/Economics-of-Nuclear-Power/
(Nuclear Association, 2014)

8.
Rettner, R., & Science, L. (2011, marc 15). How does nuclear radiation harm the body?. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/13250-radiation-health-effects-japan-nuclear-reactor-cancer.html
(Rettner & Science, 2011)

9.
Association, G. E. (2014, Febu 04). What are the environmental benefits and issues related to geothermal energy?. Retrieved from http://www.geo-energy.org/geo_basics_environment.aspx
(Association, 2014)

10.
EPA, U. (2013, Sept 13). Coal. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/coal.html
(EPA, 2013)

11.
Behling, B. (2004, Janu 01). Geo testimony to ohio biofuel & renewable energy task force. Retrieved from https://www.greenenergyohio.org/page.cfm?pageId=49
(Behling, 2004)

12.
Australian, G. (2005, Janu 01). Smoke from biomass burning. Retrieved from http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/smoke-biomass-burning
(Australian, 2005)

13.

 Nandan Kumar Mondal, D. (2007, Janu 01). Health effects of chronic exposure to smoke from biomass fuel burning in rural areas. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1071891/Health_effects_of_chronic_exposure_to_smoke_from_Biomass_Fuel_burning_in_rural_areas
(Nandan Kumar Mondal, 2007)

14.
Wellspring, E. (2014, Febu 01). Solar energy can be a health hazard. Retrieved from http://www.eiwellspring.org/SolarEMFHazard.pdf
(Wellspring, 2014)

15.
Salt, A. N.(P.H.D) (2013, June 06). Wind turbines can be hazardous to human health. Retrieved from http://oto2.wustl.edu/cochlea/wind.html
(Salt, 2013)

16.
Millennium, P. (2009, Janu 01). Global challenges for humanity. Retrieved from http://www.millennium-project.org/millennium/challeng.html
(Millennium, 2009)

17.
Good, C. (2014, Marc 15). Health and safety concerns of photovoltaic solar panels . Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/OIPP/docs/life-cyclehealthandsafetyconcerns.pdf
(Good C, 2014)

18.Good, C. (2014, Marc 15). Scaling public concerns of electromagnetic fields produced by solar photovoltaic arrays. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/hwy/oipp/docs/emfconcerns.pdf
(Good C, 2014)

Yash Dixit & Jin Wei Signing Out

Information about Energy & Electricity


Energy is usually measured in joules

Kilojoule
The kilojoule (kJ) is equal to one thousand (103) joules. Nutritional food labels in certain countries express energy in standard kilojoules (kJ).
One kilojoule per second (1 kilowatt) is approximately the amount of solar radiation received by one square metre of the Earth in full daylight.

Megajoule
The megajoule (MJ) is equal to one million (106) joules, or approximately the kinetic energy of a one-ton vehicle moving at 160 km/h (100 mph).
Because 1 watt times one second equals one joule, 1 kilowatt-hour is 1000 watts times 3600 seconds, or 3.6 megajoules.

Gigajoule
The gigajoule (GJ) is equal to one billion (109) joules. Six gigajoules is about the amount of potential chemical energy in a barrel of oil, when combusted.

Terajoule
The terajoule (TJ) is equal to one trillion (1012) joules. About 63 terajoules were released by the atomic bomb that exploded over Hiroshima. The International Space Station, with a mass of approximately 450,000 kg and orbital velocity of 7.7 km/s, has a kinetic energy of roughly 13.34 terajoules.

Petajoule
The petajoule (PJ) is equal to one quadrillion (1015) joules. 210 PJ is equivalent to about 50 megatons of TNT. This is the amount of energy released by the Tsar Bomba, the largest man-made nuclear explosion ever.

Exajoule
The exajoule (EJ) is equal to one quintillion (1018) joules. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan had 1.41 EJ of energy according to its 9.0 on themoment magnitude scale. Energy in the United States used per year is roughly 94 EJ.

Zettajoule
The zettajoule (ZJ) is equal to one sextillion (1021) joules. Annual global energy consumption is approximately 0.5 ZJ.

Electricity is usually measured in Watts

Kilowatt
The kilowatt is equal to one thousand (103) watts, or one sthene-metre per second. This unit is typically used to express the output power of engines and the power of electric motors, tools, machines, and heaters. It is also a common unit used to express the electromagnetic power output of broadcast radio and television transmitters.
One kilowatt is approximately equal to 1.34 horsepower. A small electric heater with one heating element can use 1.0 kilowatt, which is equivalent to the power of a household in the United States averaged over the entire year.
Also, kilowatts of light power can be measured in the output pulses of some lasers.
A surface area of one square meter on Earth receives typically one kilowatt of sunlight from the sun (on a clear day at midday).

Megawatt
The megawatt is equal to one million (106) watts. Many events or machines produce or sustain the conversion of energy on this scale, including lightning strikes; large electric motors; large warships such as aircraft carriers, cruisers, and submarines; large server farms or data centers; and some scientific research equipment, such as supercolliders, and the output pulses of very large lasers. A large residential or commercial building may use several megawatts in electric power and heat. On railways, modern high-powered electric locomotives typically have a peak power output of 5 or 6 MW, although some produce much more. The Eurostar, for example, uses more than 12 MW, while heavy diesel-electric locomotives typically produce/use 3 to 5 MW. U.S. nuclear power plants have net summer capacities between about 500 and 1300 MW.[5]
The earliest citing of the megawatt in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a reference in the 1900 Webster's International Dictionary of English Language. The OED also states that megawatt appeared in a 28 November 1947 article in the journal Science (506:2).

Gigawatt
The gigawatt is equal to one billion (109) watts or 1 gigawatt = 1000 megawatts. This unit is sometimes used for large power plants or power grids. For example, by the end of 2010 power shortages in China's Shanxi province were expected to increase to 5–6 GW and the installed capacity of wind power in Germany was 25.8 GW.The largest unit (out of four) of the Belgian Nuclear Plant Doel has a peak output of 1.04 GW. HVDC converters have been built with power ratings of up to 2 GW.The London Array, the world's largest offshore wind farm, is designed to produce a gigawatt of power.

Terawatt
The terawatt is equal to one trillion (1012) watts. The total power used by humans worldwide (about 16 TW in 2006) is commonly measured in this unit. The most powerful lasers from the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s produced power in terawatts, but only for nanosecond time frames. The average lightning strike peaks at 1 terawatt, but these strikes only last for 30 microseconds.

Petawatt
The petawatt is equal to one quadrillion (1015) watts and can be produced by the current generation of lasers for time-scales on the order of picoseconds (10−12 s). One such laser is the Lawrence Livermore's Nova laser, which achieved a power output of 1.25 PW (1.25 × 1015 W) by a process called chirped pulse amplification. The duration of the pulse was about 0.5 ps (5 × 10−13 s), giving a total energy of 600 J, or enough energy to power a 100 W light bulb for six seconds.
Based on the average total solar irradiance of 1.366 kW/m2, the total power of sunlight striking Earth's atmosphere is estimated at 174 PW (cf. Solar Constant).

Yash Dixit Signing Out

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Inspiration and Thought Process

Why did we do this topic on the Cost of Different Sources of Energy?

It is said that Energy is one of the 15 First World Problems, due to its demand. And this demand is increasing rapidly over the years as technology evolves.
"In just 38 years, the world should create enough electrical production capacity for an additional 3.3 billion people. There are 1.3 billion people (20% of the world) without electricity today, and an addition 2 billion people will be added to the world’s population between now and 2050."(Millennium, 2009).

This means that the production of energy must keep up to the world population (or rather those who could afford it.) Thus, more of this such energy generators must be built in order to keep up with the demands. And this comes to our research: Whats the cost of this various different energy sources.

Thoughts of the Topic on the Cost of Energy...

At the start we just limited ourselves to monetary costs like the cost of building up the source, maintenance and initial start-up cost .etc To sum it up the Levelized Cost of Energy, LCE or sometimes known as LCOE.(Rozenblat, 2010)

After some prodding from Mr Tan, (IRS Teacher-in-Charge) we come up with the environmental cost as in the impact done on the environment by energy generator. An example would be how the emissions of burning fossil fuels would pollute the air.

Next, Mr Tan suggested to us the political cost. However, Yash and I decided not to work on politics due to our lack of interest. This was a mistake on our side, as we couldn't back up much of our research now.

Also, later in the term we thought of the health impact. How this energy sources would harm our health. An example would be how Solar Power cause electromagnetic radiation which would cause people to fall sick and become restless..(Wellspring, 2014).