Saturday, April 12, 2014

Information about Wind Energy

Information about Wind Energy

Definition- Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.

As a general rule, economic wind generators require windspeed of 16 km/h (10 mph) or greater. An ideal location would have a near constant flow of non-turbulent wind throughout the year, with a minimum likelihood of sudden powerful bursts of wind. An important factor of turbine siting is also access to local demand or transmission capacity.

Wind Farms
A wind farm or wind park is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce energy. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm can also be located offshore.


Yash Dixit Signing Out

Information about Hydro-power

Information about Hydro-power

Definition- Hydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

Having fallen out of favor during the late 20th century due to the disruptive ecological and social effects of large impoundments, hydropower enjoyed a revival by 2013 as international institutions such as the World Bank tried to find solutions to economic development which avoided adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere.

Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water to the turbine.

Yash Dixit Signing Out

Information about Solar Energy

Information about Solar Energy

Definition- Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.


The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.


Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind,cyclones and anti-cyclones.Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.

Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption
Solar3,850,000 EJ
Wind2,250 EJ
Biomass potential100–300 EJ
Primary energy use (2010)539 EJ
Electricity (2010)66.5 EJ
The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass. The technical potential available from biomass is from 100–300 EJ/year. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined,


Solar energy can be harnessed at different levels around the world, mostly depending on distance from the equator.

Solar Farms

They are differentiated from most building-mounted and other decentralised solar power applications because they supply power at the utility level, rather than to a local user or users. They are sometimes also referred to as solar farms or solar ranches, especially when sited in agricultural areas. The generic expression utility-scale solar is sometimes used to describe this type of project.

The power conversion source is via photovoltaic modules that convert light directly to electricity. This differs from the other large-scale solar generation technology, concentrated solar power.

Yash Dixit Signing Out

Friday, April 11, 2014

Bibliography(Finalised)

Our Previous Sites were not cited properly. And there was a lot of wikipedia links.

1.
Nottingham, E. P. (2013, Janu 01). Energy cost comparison. Retrieved from http://www.nottenergy.com/energy_cost_comparison
(Nottingham, 2013)

2.
Rozenblat, L. (2010, Janu 01). Your guide to renewable energy. Retrieved from http://www.renewable-energysources.com/
(Rozenblat, 2010)

3.
Pare, J. (2007, Febu 23). Energy source cost comparison. Retrieved from http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/coastal/ocean_policy/documents/te_workshop_cost_compare.pdf
(Pare, 2007)

4.
PB, P. (2004, Febu 13). The cost of generating electricity. Retrieved from https://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Cost_Generation_Commentary.pdf
(PB, 2004)

5.
Engineers, P. (2006, Janu 01). Energy source comparison. Retrieved from http://www.energy4me.org/energy-facts
(Engineers, 2006)

6.
theguardian. (2014, Febu 13). Renewable energy. Retrieved fromhttp://www.theguardian.com/environment/renewableenergy
(theguardian, 2014)

7.
Nuclear Association, W. (2014, Febu 02). The economics of nuclear power. Retrieved from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Economic-Aspects/Economics-of-Nuclear-Power/
(Nuclear Association, 2014)

8.
Rettner, R., & Science, L. (2011, marc 15). How does nuclear radiation harm the body?. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/13250-radiation-health-effects-japan-nuclear-reactor-cancer.html
(Rettner & Science, 2011)

9.
Association, G. E. (2014, Febu 04). What are the environmental benefits and issues related to geothermal energy?. Retrieved from http://www.geo-energy.org/geo_basics_environment.aspx
(Association, 2014)

10.
EPA, U. (2013, Sept 13). Coal. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/coal.html
(EPA, 2013)

11.
Behling, B. (2004, Janu 01). Geo testimony to ohio biofuel & renewable energy task force. Retrieved from https://www.greenenergyohio.org/page.cfm?pageId=49
(Behling, 2004)

12.
Australian, G. (2005, Janu 01). Smoke from biomass burning. Retrieved from http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/smoke-biomass-burning
(Australian, 2005)

13.

 Nandan Kumar Mondal, D. (2007, Janu 01). Health effects of chronic exposure to smoke from biomass fuel burning in rural areas. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1071891/Health_effects_of_chronic_exposure_to_smoke_from_Biomass_Fuel_burning_in_rural_areas
(Nandan Kumar Mondal, 2007)

14.
Wellspring, E. (2014, Febu 01). Solar energy can be a health hazard. Retrieved from http://www.eiwellspring.org/SolarEMFHazard.pdf
(Wellspring, 2014)

15.
Salt, A. N.(P.H.D) (2013, June 06). Wind turbines can be hazardous to human health. Retrieved from http://oto2.wustl.edu/cochlea/wind.html
(Salt, 2013)

16.
Millennium, P. (2009, Janu 01). Global challenges for humanity. Retrieved from http://www.millennium-project.org/millennium/challeng.html
(Millennium, 2009)

17.
Good, C. (2014, Marc 15). Health and safety concerns of photovoltaic solar panels . Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/OIPP/docs/life-cyclehealthandsafetyconcerns.pdf
(Good C, 2014)

18.Good, C. (2014, Marc 15). Scaling public concerns of electromagnetic fields produced by solar photovoltaic arrays. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/hwy/oipp/docs/emfconcerns.pdf
(Good C, 2014)

Yash Dixit & Jin Wei Signing Out

Information about Energy & Electricity


Energy is usually measured in joules

Kilojoule
The kilojoule (kJ) is equal to one thousand (103) joules. Nutritional food labels in certain countries express energy in standard kilojoules (kJ).
One kilojoule per second (1 kilowatt) is approximately the amount of solar radiation received by one square metre of the Earth in full daylight.

Megajoule
The megajoule (MJ) is equal to one million (106) joules, or approximately the kinetic energy of a one-ton vehicle moving at 160 km/h (100 mph).
Because 1 watt times one second equals one joule, 1 kilowatt-hour is 1000 watts times 3600 seconds, or 3.6 megajoules.

Gigajoule
The gigajoule (GJ) is equal to one billion (109) joules. Six gigajoules is about the amount of potential chemical energy in a barrel of oil, when combusted.

Terajoule
The terajoule (TJ) is equal to one trillion (1012) joules. About 63 terajoules were released by the atomic bomb that exploded over Hiroshima. The International Space Station, with a mass of approximately 450,000 kg and orbital velocity of 7.7 km/s, has a kinetic energy of roughly 13.34 terajoules.

Petajoule
The petajoule (PJ) is equal to one quadrillion (1015) joules. 210 PJ is equivalent to about 50 megatons of TNT. This is the amount of energy released by the Tsar Bomba, the largest man-made nuclear explosion ever.

Exajoule
The exajoule (EJ) is equal to one quintillion (1018) joules. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan had 1.41 EJ of energy according to its 9.0 on themoment magnitude scale. Energy in the United States used per year is roughly 94 EJ.

Zettajoule
The zettajoule (ZJ) is equal to one sextillion (1021) joules. Annual global energy consumption is approximately 0.5 ZJ.

Electricity is usually measured in Watts

Kilowatt
The kilowatt is equal to one thousand (103) watts, or one sthene-metre per second. This unit is typically used to express the output power of engines and the power of electric motors, tools, machines, and heaters. It is also a common unit used to express the electromagnetic power output of broadcast radio and television transmitters.
One kilowatt is approximately equal to 1.34 horsepower. A small electric heater with one heating element can use 1.0 kilowatt, which is equivalent to the power of a household in the United States averaged over the entire year.
Also, kilowatts of light power can be measured in the output pulses of some lasers.
A surface area of one square meter on Earth receives typically one kilowatt of sunlight from the sun (on a clear day at midday).

Megawatt
The megawatt is equal to one million (106) watts. Many events or machines produce or sustain the conversion of energy on this scale, including lightning strikes; large electric motors; large warships such as aircraft carriers, cruisers, and submarines; large server farms or data centers; and some scientific research equipment, such as supercolliders, and the output pulses of very large lasers. A large residential or commercial building may use several megawatts in electric power and heat. On railways, modern high-powered electric locomotives typically have a peak power output of 5 or 6 MW, although some produce much more. The Eurostar, for example, uses more than 12 MW, while heavy diesel-electric locomotives typically produce/use 3 to 5 MW. U.S. nuclear power plants have net summer capacities between about 500 and 1300 MW.[5]
The earliest citing of the megawatt in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a reference in the 1900 Webster's International Dictionary of English Language. The OED also states that megawatt appeared in a 28 November 1947 article in the journal Science (506:2).

Gigawatt
The gigawatt is equal to one billion (109) watts or 1 gigawatt = 1000 megawatts. This unit is sometimes used for large power plants or power grids. For example, by the end of 2010 power shortages in China's Shanxi province were expected to increase to 5–6 GW and the installed capacity of wind power in Germany was 25.8 GW.The largest unit (out of four) of the Belgian Nuclear Plant Doel has a peak output of 1.04 GW. HVDC converters have been built with power ratings of up to 2 GW.The London Array, the world's largest offshore wind farm, is designed to produce a gigawatt of power.

Terawatt
The terawatt is equal to one trillion (1012) watts. The total power used by humans worldwide (about 16 TW in 2006) is commonly measured in this unit. The most powerful lasers from the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s produced power in terawatts, but only for nanosecond time frames. The average lightning strike peaks at 1 terawatt, but these strikes only last for 30 microseconds.

Petawatt
The petawatt is equal to one quadrillion (1015) watts and can be produced by the current generation of lasers for time-scales on the order of picoseconds (10−12 s). One such laser is the Lawrence Livermore's Nova laser, which achieved a power output of 1.25 PW (1.25 × 1015 W) by a process called chirped pulse amplification. The duration of the pulse was about 0.5 ps (5 × 10−13 s), giving a total energy of 600 J, or enough energy to power a 100 W light bulb for six seconds.
Based on the average total solar irradiance of 1.366 kW/m2, the total power of sunlight striking Earth's atmosphere is estimated at 174 PW (cf. Solar Constant).

Yash Dixit Signing Out

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Inspiration and Thought Process

Why did we do this topic on the Cost of Different Sources of Energy?

It is said that Energy is one of the 15 First World Problems, due to its demand. And this demand is increasing rapidly over the years as technology evolves.
"In just 38 years, the world should create enough electrical production capacity for an additional 3.3 billion people. There are 1.3 billion people (20% of the world) without electricity today, and an addition 2 billion people will be added to the world’s population between now and 2050."(Millennium, 2009).

This means that the production of energy must keep up to the world population (or rather those who could afford it.) Thus, more of this such energy generators must be built in order to keep up with the demands. And this comes to our research: Whats the cost of this various different energy sources.

Thoughts of the Topic on the Cost of Energy...

At the start we just limited ourselves to monetary costs like the cost of building up the source, maintenance and initial start-up cost .etc To sum it up the Levelized Cost of Energy, LCE or sometimes known as LCOE.(Rozenblat, 2010)

After some prodding from Mr Tan, (IRS Teacher-in-Charge) we come up with the environmental cost as in the impact done on the environment by energy generator. An example would be how the emissions of burning fossil fuels would pollute the air.

Next, Mr Tan suggested to us the political cost. However, Yash and I decided not to work on politics due to our lack of interest. This was a mistake on our side, as we couldn't back up much of our research now.

Also, later in the term we thought of the health impact. How this energy sources would harm our health. An example would be how Solar Power cause electromagnetic radiation which would cause people to fall sick and become restless..(Wellspring, 2014). 

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Research Proposal Draft

Research Proposal
Sec 2 Interdisciplinary Research Studies


Research Topic: Energy Generation


00_Chosen Area of Focus: The Cost of Energy Generation


Group Member’s Names-
-Koh Jin Wei (18)
-Yash Dixit (12)


01_Statement of Problem (framing our research data of >200 words)(KohJinWei)


Energy is used everyday in our life, in terms of electrical energy. However, the cost to have electricity running in our houses is nothing short of expensive. The cost in terms of manpower, built and equipment cost, operating cost.etc. And specifically the impact it makes on the environment. Now days, people are trying to go green to save the Earth from global warming. A contribution to global warming would be the impact done to the environment from generating electricity. Generating electricity via non-renewable methods such as burning fossil fuels and nuclear power damages the environment tremendously. For the burning of fossil fuels, fumes and waste would pollute the environment. And the waste from Nuclear Power is extremely radioactive, this radioactive waves are very harmful to living organisms or even death. Thus, the cost for this non-renewable energy is very taxing. As for renewable energy, the built and generating cost is quite expensive. Although, these sources of renewable energy doesn’t pollute the environment, the price to build and use one of these is still expensive. Thus, I could conclude from this that energy does cost quite a lot. This energy crisis would be our problem for this term of IRS.




02_Research Objectives (>200 words)(KohJinWei)


Our research objective on this energy crisis is to find out about the cost of different energy. How the different energy sources affect the cost needed to run it. An example of what we would be doing: Solar Energy, there is a Solar Park in Singapore at the Marina Barrage. This Solar Park contains 405 solar panels covering the space of 1,200 sqm/meter square (Estimated). We should be able to get some data via survey to the workers or perhaps the internet. So the objective of this research to understand the relationship between the cost and the energy produced from different energy sources. From this, we could educate others on conserving energy and teach them on how spending it would affect the environment, economy, .etc.


Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Bibliography

1.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Cost of electricity by source. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost_of_electricity_by_source

(Wikipedia)

2.

Wikipedia. (Designer). Template:Cost of energy sources [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Cost_of_energy_sources

(Wikipedia, Template:Cost of energy sources)

3.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Price of petroleum. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_of_petroleum

(Wikipedia)

4.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Gasoline and diesel usage and pricing. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasoline_and_diesel_usage_and_pricing

(Wikipedia)

5.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Natural gas prices. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas_prices

(Wikipedia)

6.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Environmental impact of the petroleum industry. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_the_petroleum_industry

(Wikipedia)

7.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Environmental impact of nuclear power. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_nuclear_power

(Wikipedia)

8.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Environmental impact of electricity generation. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_electricity_generation

(Wikipedia)

9.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Environmental impact of reservoirs. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_reservoirs

(Wikipedia)

10.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Environmental impact of the energy industry. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_the_energy_industry

(Wikipedia)

11.

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Environmental impact of wind power. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_wind_power

(Wikipedia)

12.

Nottenergy. (n.d.). Energy cost comparison. Retrieved from http://www.nottenergy.com/energy_cost_comparison

(Nottenergy)

13.

renewable-energysources.com. (n.d.). Renewable energy sources. Retrieved from http://www.renewable-energysources.com

(renewable-energysources.com)

14.

Robert S. Preston. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, (2007). Energy source cost comparisons. Retrieved from website: http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/coastal/ocean_policy/documents/te_workshop_cost_compare.pdf

(Robert S. Preston, 2007)

15.

The Royal Academy of Engineering. (n.d.). The cost of generating electricity. Retrieved from https://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Cost_Generation_Commentary.pdf

(The Royal Academy of Engineering)

16.

energy4me.org. (n.d.). Energy source comparison. Retrieved from http://www.energy4me.org/energy-facts

(energy4me.org)

17.

U.S. Energy Information Administration, EIA. U.S. Energy Information Administration, (2013). Singapore - U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved from website: http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=SN

(U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013)

18.

U.S. Energy Information Administration, EIA. U.S. Energy Information Administration, (2013). Singapore- Analaysis - U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved from website: http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=SN

(U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013)

19.
theguardian. (2014, Febu 13). Renewable energy. Retrieved fromhttp://www.theguardian.com/environment/renewableenergy
(theguardian, 2014)(KJW)

20.
Wiki'P. (2014, Febu 04). Cost of electricity by source. Retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost_of_electricity_by_source
(Wiki, 2014)(KohJinWei)

21.
Nuclear Association, W. (2014, Febu 02). The economics of nuclear power. Retrieved from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Economic-Aspects/Economics-of-Nuclear-Power/
(Nuclear Association, 2014)(KohJinWei)

22.
Rettner, R., & Science, L. (2011, marc 15). How does nuclear radiation harm the body?. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/13250-radiation-health-effects-japan-nuclear-reactor-cancer.html
(Rettner & Science, 2011)(KohJinWei)

Yash Dixit Signing Out

Friday, February 7, 2014

An Investigation into the cost of different energy sources.

An Investigation into the Cost of Different Energy Sources

≈For this Interdisciplinary Research Studies Project, we would probably work on two types of energy sources, one non-renewable and the other a renewable energy. Maybe, if we had the time, we would like to focus on more than these two energy sources. As for the cost, we would mostly focus on the impact on the environment and built cost, maybe the political cost too.

Research Title

An Investigation into the cost of different energy sources.

Mr Tan Hoe Teck
Koh Jin Wei
Yash Dixit

Project Ideas

-PlantMatter
Plants takes in carbon dioxide and water and under the process of photosynthesis in the presence of light, oxygen and glucose is produced. The percentage of oxygen in the air is estimated at 20.5% and the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air is 0.05%. We would like to research on the relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide taken in and the amount of oxygen given out in a plant.

-Wastage

We dispose waste in Singapore by burning them before dumping the excess ashes into Palau Semakau. During the burning process, fumes would be produced; polluting the air. Research about how the amount of waste would affect the air quality, would be useful in the coming future.

-EnergySpawning (Chosen)

There's tons of ways to convert energy into electrical energy, whether it is renewable or non-renewable. Some ways would be biomass, fossil fuel, hydraulic, wind turbines, dams .etc. But all of this needs a cost, not only monetary cost, but resource cost too; manpower, fossil fuels. And you also need energy to power up the generator. We would like to find out the cost for different types of energy converters.


Jin Wei Signing Out

10:55(GMT+8) 08/02/14

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Project Ideas (ISS) (No longer valid)

Ideas- (Sorry I messed up badly. Please check the the next blog post.)
(Instead of doing IRS(Interdisciplinary Research Studies), we went ahead and did ISS ideas.)

-In-Gravity
Gravity a force that's a nuisance to most people. Gravity could be useful at times, but sometimes we're better off without it. Some of our work would be easier without gravity, like moving extra-heavy objects and also we save tons of electrical energy if we were to have zero gravity in places like lift lobby .etc. We aim to create a space that defy gravity or at the very least prove through theory.

-Energy Spawning (Chosen One)
"Energy can neither be created nor destroyed". This is what we learned as energy could only be converted. But can we humans, convert it easily, without a generator. It would be fantastic if we could just shout and convert the sound energy into light energy without much effort or mechanism, it would sure be handy. "Could we convert energy easily?" that is what we're looking at. If this could be so, we would never need generators to be powered by the burning of fossil fuels, hydraulic power, .etc. This would very well create a new age of the world.

-Breathless
When running, human tend to get out of breath; at the same time taking in volumes of oxygen. Due, to this there would be more carbon dioxide emission. A solution would be to not exercise at all, but this would damage our health. Thus, we would like to research about plants, and find a biological way to tweak its 'body' to make it 'breathless'; allowing the plant to overwork. Maybe, instead of tweaking its 'body'; we could change its environment.

-Transportation
Travel from places to places takes up fuels, ton of fuels and pollute the air at the same time. The carbon monoxide emission would "kill the atmosphere". We would like to delve into the depths of transportation and come up with a new kind of travel that helps the environment and delay the apocalypse. Something that is much more better than the "Hybrid-Cars". One of our crazy ideas is to repel the gravitational force of Earth, this transport would have no, totally zero, friction and theoretically, it could exit the limit of an F1 car.

-Waste Disposal
This is inspired by the show "Wall-E". We dispose waste in Singapore by burning them before dumping the excess ashes into Pulau Semakau. This not only pollute the air but it takes up space, tons of it. We could test the properties of waste products and create a new way of disposal. This would allow us to save space for other stuff.


Jin Wei & Yash Dixit signing out.
11:55:59(GMT+8)   22/01/14